There are a multitude of factors that may contribute to earnings differences between women and men: age, number of hours worked, presence of children, and education. The types of jobs women and men hold, and the earnings difference among these occupations also contribute to gaps in overall earnings.
A new visualization tool depicts the gender-based wage gap at the state level using 2019 ACS and 2019 Puerto Rico Community Survey data. The wage gap data visualization highlights the top occupation and the three top occupations for men and women for each state by count of workers.
By analyzing top occupations by sex, we highlight occupational segregation within states and show how particular occupations have an overrepresentation of men or women. If you hover over the state geography, information about male and female median earnings and the wage gap at the state level reappear.
The Equal Pay Act requires that men and women in the same workplace be given equal pay for equal work. The jobs need not be identical, but they must be substantially equal. Job content (not job titles) determines whether jobs are substantially equal. All forms of pay are covered by this law, including salary, overtime pay, bonuses, stock options, profit sharing and bonus plans, life insurance, vacation and holiday pay, cleaning or gasoline allowances, hotel accommodations, reimbursement for travel expenses, and benefits. If there is an inequality in wages between men and women, employers may not reduce the wages of either sex to equalize their pay.
Studies show that although more women than men have chronic kidney disease (CKD), men are more likely to reach kidney failure sooner than women. That's why being male is used as a risk factor to predict a faster time to reach kidney failure.
Men may be at increased risk of reaching kidney failure sooner than women because of differences in hormone levels. Higher testosterone levels in men may cause a loss in kidney function. On the other hand, men's kidneys may not be protected by estrogen, which is higher in women until menopause.
Overall, men may have unhealthier lifestyles, thereby leading to a higher risk for kidney failure. And in studies, men may have been counted as having kidney failure at a younger age than women because they may have gotten dialysis or a kidney transplant sooner than women. Although more women may have had kidney failure, they may not have been counted in studies because they weren't on dialysis or didn't have a kidney transplant.
Researchers analyzed data collected in 2001 and 2002 by a National Institutes of Health survey of 43,093 U.S. residents 18 and older who were civilians and not institutionalized. Of those, 57 percent were women and 56.9 percent were white; 19.3 percent were Hispanic or Latino; 19.1 percent were African-American; 3.1 percent Asian, native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; and 1.6 percent were American Indian or native Alaskan. The data were representative of the age, race/ethnicity and gender distributions of the U.S. population in the 2000 Census. Participants answered interview questions. The analysis examined their lifetime mental health history as well as over the prior 12 months.
Past research also indicated that women report more neuroticism and more frequent stressful life events than men do before the onset of a disorder, indicating that environmental stressors may also contribute to internalizing, the report said.
Across times, cultures, and very different religious beliefs, marriage is the foundation of the family. The family, in turn, is the basic unit of society. Thus, marriage is a personal relationship with public significance. Marriage is the fundamental pattern for male-female relationships. It contributes to society because it models the way in which women and men live interdependently and commit, for the whole of life, to seek the good of each other.
The term gender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female. In most societies, being a man or a woman is not simply a matter of different biological and physical characteristics. Men and women face different expectations about how they should dress, behave or work. Relations between men and women, whether in the family, the workplace or the public sphere, also reflect understandings of the talents, characteristics and behaviour appropriate to women and to men. Gender thus differs from sex in that it is social and cultural in nature rather than biological. Gender attributes and characteristics, encompassing, inter alia, the roles that men and women play and the expectations placed upon them, vary widely among societies and change over time. But the fact that gender attributes are socially constructed means that they are also amenable to change in ways that can make a society more just and equitable.
Gender mainstreaming is a strategy for integrating gender concerns in the analysis, formulation and monitoring of policies, programmes and projects. It is therefore a means to an end, not an end in itself; a process, not a goal. The purpose of gender mainstreaming is to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women in population and development activities. This requires addressing both the condition, as well as the position, of women and men in society. Gender mainstreaming therefore aims to strengthen the legitimacy of gender equality values by addressing known gender disparities and gaps in such areas as the division of labour between men and women; access to and control over resources; access to services, information and opportunities; and distribution of power and decision-making. UNFPA has adopted the mainstreaming of gender concerns into all population and development activities as the primary means of achieving the commitments on gender equality, equity and empowerment of women stemming from the International Conference on Population and Development.
Gender mainstreaming, as a strategy, does not preclude interventions that focus only on women or only on men. In some instances, the gender analysis that precedes programme design and development reveals severe inequalities that call for an initial strategy of sex-specific interventions. However, such sex-specific interventions should still aim to reduce identified gender disparities by focusing on equality or inequity as the objective rather than on men or women as a target group. In such a context, sex-specific interventions are still important aspects of a gender mainstreaming strategy. When implemented correctly, they should not contribute to a marginalization of men in such a critical area as access to reproductive and sexual health services. Nor should they contribute to the evaporation of gains or advances already secured by women. Rather, they should consolidate such gains that are central building blocks towards gender equality.
Gender equality is intrinsically linked to sustainable development and is vital to the realization of human rights for all. The overall objective of gender equality is a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, rights and obligations in all spheres of life. Equality between men and women exists when both sexes are able to share equally in the distribution of power and influence; have equal opportunities for financial independence through work or through setting up businesses; enjoy equal access to education and the opportunity to develop personal ambitions, interests and talents; share responsibility for the home and children and are completely free from coercion, intimidation and gender-based violence both at work and at home.
Within the context of population and development programmes, gender equality is critical because it will enable women and men to make decisions that impact more positively on their own sexual and reproductive health as well as that of their spouses and families. Decision-making with regard to such issues as age at marriage, timing of births, use of contraception, and recourse to harmful practices (such as female genital cutting) stands to be improved with the achievement of gender equality.
HIV infection impacts a growing number of women in Illinois each year. Nearly 7,000 women in Illinois are currently known to be living with HIV and/or AIDS. Many hundreds of other women are probably living with HIV even though they are unaware of their own infection.
HIV/AIDS disproportionately impacts African-American women in Illinois and the United States. Nationally, HIV infection is the leading cause of death for African-American women between the ages of 25 and 34. In Illinois, the number of HIV cases among African-American women continues to climb. Roughly 68 percent of Illinois women living with HIV are African American, while African Americans only make up 15 percent of the Illinois population. Caucasian women account for 16 percent of Illinois women living with HIV, while the Caucasian population represents more than 73 percent of Illinois residents. Latina women represent roughly 11 percent of the HIV/AIDS cases in women, while 13 percent of the Illinois population is Latino. Roughly 4 percent of women with HIV are from Native American, Asian, Pacific Islander and other communities.
The majority of new HIV cases in women are the result of sexual behaviors; roughly two out of every three new infections in women are the result of unprotected sexual intercourse. The remaining new cases in Illinois are largely due to sharing needles and works while using injection drugs.
During heterosexual intercourse, women are usually more exposed to bodily fluids than their male partners. This places women at increased risk for many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Women, especially young women, may be more vulnerable because they may be afraid to say no to sex or to insist that their partner use a condom.
Injection drug use that includes the sharing of needles or other equipment with injection partners also places women at risk for HIV. If you are a woman who is using or has used injection drugs in the past 10 years, or if you have a sexual partner who has used injection drugs, you may be at high risk for HIV infection. If you have a sexual partner who has been in jail, or who may have had sex with other men at some time, you also may be at high risk for HIV. If you know or believe you have had a sexual partner who has HIV, you may be at very high risk for HIV infection. The Illinois HIV and STD Hotline (800-244-2437) can assist you in finding free and anonymous HIV testing in your area. 2b1af7f3a8